All quoted works or their English translations published prior to 1928 are assumed to be in the public domain. Permission has been granted by the respective publishers to reproduce those works protected by copyright. Reference [3] reprinted with the permission of MIT Press. Reference [6] courtesy of Hagley Museum and Library. Reference [23] reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library. The Loeb Classical Library is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Reference [25] reprinted with permission of the American Philosophical Society. References [53] and [65] reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.

Brief snatches from literature, movies, television, and popular songs have been used to comment on the nature of memes under the fair use provision of the Copyright Act. Full bibliographic citations would be unwieldy; sources for these snatches have been listed in the index as a kind of key for those who recognize them.

Primary Texts

[1] Georgius Agricola, H. Hoover, L. Hoover, De Re Metallica, 1556, 1912, 1950, Dover Publications, Order from

[2] Aristotle, The Works of Aristotle, Edited by W. D. Ross, 1908, Oxford University Press.

[3] Vannoccio Biringuccio, Cyril Smith, Martha Gnudi, The Pirotechnia, 1942, The M.I.T. Press, Order from

[4] Robert Bradbury, An Inductive Chemistry, 1912, D. Appleton & Co..

[5] E. Caley, The Stockholm Papyrus, J. Chem. Educ., 3, 1927, 992-999.

[6] W. H. Carothers, Letter to Hamilton Bradshaw, November 9, 1927, Hagley Museum and Library, 1896.

[7] W. H. Carothers, J. A. Arvin, Studies of Polymerization and Ring Formation II Poly-esters, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1929, American Chemical Society, 51, 2560.

[8] M. Chomell, The Dictionaire Oeconomique, 1758, L. Flinn.

[9] William Crookes, The Wheat Problem, 1899, G. P. Putnam's Sons.

[10] Jean D'Espagnet, 1623, 1650, 1987, Hermetic Arcanum, Holmes Publishing Group, Order from, Internet Sacred Text Archive.

[11] John Draper, Textbook on Chemistry, 1846, Harper & Brothers.

[12] Claudius Galenus, Opera Omnia, 2001, Georg Olms Verlag, Order from, Order from

[13] L. W. King, Hammurabi, King of Babylonia, 1898, Internet Sacred Text Archive, Luzac & Co..

[14] Holy Bible (KJV), Internet Sacred Text Archive.

[15] Homer, Samuel Butler, The Iliad of Homer, 1898, Longmans, Green, and Co..

[16] Lao-tzu, Tao Te Ching, 1891, 1962, Internet Sacred Text Archive, Dover.

[17] Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Robert Kerr, Elements of Chemistry, 1790, 1965, Dover, Order from

[18] Henry Leicester, Herbert Klickstein, Source Book in Chemistry, 1952, Harvard University Press.

[19] Lucretius, William Ellery Leonard, On the Nature of Things, 1916, E. P. Dutton, Internet Sacred Text Archive.

[20] Marie McLaughlin, Myths and Legends of the Sioux, 1916, Bismarck Tribune Company, Internet Sacred Text Archive.

[21] William Noyes, Textbook of Chemistry, 1913, Henry Holt & Co..

[22] Ralph Oesper, Christian Schonbein, J. Chem. Educ., 6, 1929, 432-440.

[23] Pliny, H. Rackham, Natural History, 1962, Harvard University Press, Order from

[24] William Shakespeare, The Riverside Shakespeare, Houghton Mifflin, Order from

[25] C. Smith, J. Hawthorne, Mappae Clavicula, 1974, American Philosophical Society, Order from

[26] H. Stapleton, R. Azo, M. Husain, Chemistry in Iraq and Persia in the Tenth Century A.D., Mem. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, VIII, 1927, 317-418.

[27] Theophilus, J. Hawthorne, C. Smith, On Divers Arts, 1979, Dover Publications, Order from

[28] Vitruvius, Morris Morgan, The Ten Books on Architecture, 1914, Harvard University Press, Order from

[29] Rudolf Wagner, William Crookes, Wagner's Chemical Technology, 1872, 1988, Lindsay Publications.

Agencies and Organizations

[30] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Website, 2002, U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

[31] J. T. Baker Website, 2003, Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc..

[32] Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Website, 2002, U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.

[33] National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Website, 2003, National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

[34] National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Website, 2003, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

[35] NFPA Website, 2003, National Fire Protection Association.

[36] Amy Spencer, Guy Colonna, 2002, Fire Protection Guide To Hazardous Materials, National Fire Protection Association, Order from

[37] NPCA Website, 2003, National Paint &Coatings Association.

[38] OSHA Website, 2002, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

[39] US Census Bureau Website, 2002, U.S. Census Bureau.


[40] H. Bravery, Home Brewing Without Failures, 1965, Gramercy Publishing.

[41] Vincent Gingery, The Secrets of Building an Alcohol Producing Still, 1994, David Gingery, Order from

[42] Lee Janson, Brew Chem 101, Order from, 1996, Storey Communications.

[43] Charles Papazian, The New Complete Joy of Homebrewing, Order from, 1991, Avon Books.

Chemical Demonstrations

[44] Bassam Shakhashiri, 1983, Chemical Demonstrations, V. 1, University of Wisconsin Press, Order from

[45] Bassam Shakhashiri, 1985, Chemical Demonstrations, V. 2, University of Wisconsin Press, Order from


[46] Paul Doherty, The Aluminum/Air Battery, 2000, The Exploratorium.

[47] Alfred Morgan, The Boy Electrician, 1940, 1995, Lindsay Publications, Order from


[48] Thomas Perigrin, Practical Introductory Pyrotechnics, 1996, Falcon Fireworks.


[49] Graham Stone, Firing Schedules for Glass, 1996, Graham Stone, Order from

[50] Keith Cummings, Techniques of Kiln-Formed Glass, 1997, University of Pennsylvania, Order from

[51] Jim Kervin, Dan Fenton, Pate de Verre and Kiln Casting of Glass, 1997, GlassWear Studios, Order from

Industrial History

[52] Fred Aftalion, A History of the International Chemical Industry, 1991, University of Pennsylvania Press, Order from

[53] Ahmad al-Hassan, Donald Hill, Islamic Technology, 1986, Cambridge University Press, Order from

[54] Chemical and Engineering News, American Chemical Society, 0009-2347.

[55] Cathy Cobb, Harold Goldwhite, Creations of Fire, 1995, Plenum Press, Order from

[56] Alfred Cowles, The True Story of Aluminum, 1958, Henry Regnery Company.

[57] Edited by Herman Daly, Kenneth Townsend, Valuing the Earth, 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[58] F. W. Gibbs, The History of the Manufacture of Soap, Annals of Science, 1939.

[59] Simon Garfield, Mauve, 2002, W. W. Norton, Order from

[60] L. F. Haber, The Chemical Industry During the Nineteenth Century, 1958, Clarendon Press.

[61] L. F. Haber, The Chemical Industry: 1900-1930, 1971, Clarendon Press.

[62] Matthew Hermes, Enough for One Lifetime, 1996, American Chemical Society, Order from

[63] Joseph Lambert, Traces of the Past, 1997, Perseus Books, Order from

[64] Charles Mann, Mark Plumer, The Aspirin Wars, 1991, Alfred Knopf, Order from

[65] Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China: Chemistry and Chemical Technology: Military Technology, 5.7, 1986, Cambridge University Press, Order from

[66] Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China: Chemistry and Chemical Technology: Spagyrical Discovery and Inventions, 5.4, 1980, Cambridge University Press, Order from

[67] Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China: Chemistry and Chemical Technology: Paper and Printing, 5.1, 1985, Cambridge University Press, Order from

[68] J. R. Partington, The Alkali Industry, 1925, Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox.

[69] James Partington, A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, 1960, 1999, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Order from

[70] Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography, 1997, Abbeville Press, Order from

[71] Hugh Salzberg, From Caveman to Chemist, 1991, American Chemical Society.

[72] John Stillman, The Story of Early Chemistry, 1924, D. Appleton & Co..

[73] Graham Taylor, Patricia Sudnik, Du Pont and the International Chemical Industry, 1984, Twayne Publishers, Order from

[74] Anthony Travis, The Rainbow Makers, 1993, Lehigh University Press, Order from

[75] Kenneth Warren, Chemical Foundations: The Alkali Industry in Britain to 1926, 1980, Clarendon Press, Order from

[76] Trevor Williams, A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, 1969, Wiley-Interscience, Order from


[77] Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, 1976, Oxford University Press, Order from

[78] Susan Blackmore, The Meme Machine, 1999, Oxford University Press, Order from


[79] Vance Studley, The Art and Craft of Handmade Paper, 1990, Dover Publications, Order from

[80] Sophie Dawson, The Art and Craft of Papermaking, 1992, Running Press, Order from, Order from

[81] Jules Heller, Paper-Making, 1997, Watson-Guptill, Order from


[82] Edited by John Barnier, Coming into Focus, 2000, Chronicle Books, Order from

[83] John Burk, Walter Henry, Paul Messier, Timothy Vitale, Albumen Photographs: History, Science, and Preservation, 2000, Stanford University.

[84] Randall Webb, Martin Reed, Alternative Photographic Processes, 2000, Silver Pixel Press, Order from

Rocks and Minerals

[85] David Barthelmy, Mineralogy Database, 2002,

[86] Alan Holden, Phylis Morrison, Crystals and Crystal Growing, 1982, MIT Press, Order from

[87] Tim Rast, Mike Melbourne, Knappers Anonymous Website, 2003, Mike Melbourne.


[88] Ann Bramson, Soap: Making It, Enjoying It, 1975, Workman Publishing, Order from

[89] Susan Cavitch, The Soapmaker's Companion, 1997, Storey Publishing, Order from

[90] Catherine Failor, Making Transparent Soap, 2000, Storey Publishing, Order from


[91] Rachel Brown, The Weaving, Spinning, and Dyeing Book, 1978, Alfred A. Knopf, Order from

[92] J. N. Liles, The Art and Craft of Natural Dyeing, 1990, University of Tennessee Press, Order from